This is the second lecture <>__ on sugar given by Robert Lustig. I watched the first one <>__ a few years ago.

Stomach is 900cc.

Exercise doesn't cause weight loss. It increases bone, muscle and inner fat.

Childhood obesity on the rise on all high GDP. Poor are affected too, because they don't have healthy choices.

Prevalence in obesity is on the rise more than adults in children. There are obese six-month olds.

Newborn are 200 grams higher all over the world.

Why everybody is laying out fat?

Leptin resistance -> causes obesity. High insulin driving obesity.

It's always biochemical.

The cause of leptin resistance is insulin. Insulin blocks the leptin functionality.

*Why?* If your leptin worked right all the time you can never gain weight: But we need to gain weight in puberty and pregnancy. Insulin should block leptin two times in your lifetime but we all have high insulin rates now.

Sugar is addictive and hazardous to your health.

*A calorie is not a calorie*

In the past, people consumed 15 g/day fructose daily but today it's 100 g/day for adolescents.

*Does sugar cause weight gain?* Meta analysis says 0.8 bmi points can be attributed to it. There is a significant increase in weight from sugar, but it's only a factor in obesity.

However the question is not about obesity, it's about metabolic syndrome.

Glycogen stores are good for a rainy day. Ethanol is a carbohydrate.

A type of liver failure called: Non alchoholic fatty liver disease.

Fatty liver and cell aging are caused by sugar.

In the U.S. most obese 10 states = most unhappy 10 states = most lazy 10 states = 10 states with most heart attack = most soda consuming states = 10 states with most diabetes

Alcohol is self limiting but soft drinks are not. The high rates of diabetes in Arab countries can be linked to soda consumption.

Is it obesity causing metabolic syndrome or something in the food supply?

26% of all diabetes in the U.S. is from sugar and sugar alone.

In medicine today, what percentage of knowledge is scientific proof? 10% of what we know is from randomized scientific trials. The rest is medical causation.

Tobacco causes lung cancer? Who did the randomized trials?

Food industry says: we don't have the data, we need more research. But we can't have such experiments.

Sugar is addictive: dopamine levels are related with sugar.

If it's about stress, that's the hardest part to deal with.

Obese people are eating because their brains say so.

Salt, sugar, fat and caffeine

Salt: not addictive

Fat: not addictive

Caffeine: addictive but not toxic

Sugar: addictive

In alcohol, yeast does the first step of metabolising.

Added sugar in food is to provide this addiction.

Every diet that works is low sugar, high fiber

Energy expenditure = Life quality

In tobacco, not one lick of education made change. We need legislation for the sugar as well.

[Okunandan Kalan]