The Emergence of the Modern Middle East
19th c. Middle East
Society was not composed of individuals but of groups. Governments recognized these groups.
People defined themselves by their religious affiliation
compact minorities: maronite christians, alawis, druze in jabal druze
compact minorities located specific location and has minority identity much more than other minorities
Millet system: Religious divisions. Millets were allowed to govern themselves.
Only 1/3 of the christians paid the poll tax. (jizya)
sunni/shia division: not about religious dogma but politics
Official establishment of Islam: Sheikh'ul-Islam. Popular Islam: Sufism.
Social hierarchy: 1. Government (military and bureaucracy) 2. Religious establishment 3. Remainder of those outside the government
In 19th c. government became more centralized and powerful, and landowners became more powerful too and tensions between them and peasants grew.
There is no reliable statistics of the mid east in 19th c. Egypt's population was 3.5M in the beginning of 19th c. It grew 25 times today.
Ottomans in 19th c.
Middle East in the 19th c. was underpopulated. Now it's overpopulated.
Famine and plague was two causes for low population
Ottoman Empire became ever more muslim and ever less Christian during 19th c.
Territorialization of Identity
Religious minories sought a territorial identity
Population of Mid East grew in 19th c. and it was no longer self sufficient in food
Almost all of trade was with Europe
Government was minimal and was recognizing only the groups, not individuals
Europe: New medicine increased the population and new shipbuilding increased the trade
1783: The loss of Crimea. Before that Black Sea was an Ottoman lake.
The first time Muslim subjects began to live in Christian lands for the Ottomans.
Selim III, serious efforts of modernization
Military was the vanguard of Westernization
Revolutionary change in the military led to change in other spheres
Islam was no longer a superior culture
Napoleon's invasion of Egypt
Brought also scientific missions
Russians and French were interfering with the affairs of Christians in Ottoman lands.
The eastern Question
Refers to the fate of the Ottoman Empire
European powers had their interests in a weak but stable Ottoman Empire
Napoleon occupied Cairo in July 1798, but one month later British destroyed the French fleet
After autonomy of Egypt, Muhammad Ali was also a part of the Eastern Question
Tanzimat in Ottomans
- Sultan Abdulmecid
- Hatt-i Serif of Gulhane (1839)
- Hatt-i Humayun of 1856 (Islahat Fermani)
- Ottoman COnstitution (1878)
About 1/2 to 2/3 of all reform expenditure to army
Iltizam system revoked
Iltizam: tax farm Administrative reform ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ - Vilayet law of 1864, centralized government - Effective system of taxation - Valis are appointed from Istanbul Ministry of Education: 1847
Legal Reform ~~~~~~~~~~~~ Equality before law ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ Step towards territorial nationalism Brings Secularization, because Muslims become equal among others. Was meant to be make minorities more loyal but **backfired.** It was no longer possible to suppress Christians due to European powers' intervention. Jews were seen as loyal Ottoman subjects Security of life and property ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ Secularization ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ Eroding the authority of the ulema Explained like reinstution of Sharia New Legislation: Sharia is no longer tradition only. It needs other bodies of legalization. Hence God's law was not good enough These were real reforms but they are also used to seek European support
Guarantee of equality
The empire bankrupted because of the reforms
Russo-Turkish war (1877-78)
Abdulhamid II dissolved the Parliement
Abdulhamid advocated the muslim solidarity.
Abdulhamid's reforms were real reforms targeting towards bureuacracy
Tanzimat lied the foundations of modern Turkey
Tanzimat's most important success was in Education